AMOS DOOLITLE Judas Maccabaeus defeats the Samarian Army ca. 1780 - x +

CN: DooA1780juda

MT: copper plate engraving on paper (28x17 / P:32x22)

TX: signed by printing at lower right of margin in English <Doolittle>, printed at center below <JUDAS MACCABÆUS defeats the SAMARIAN ARMY / and kill Apollonius their General>

LC: ACG Art Storage

DN: Mr. Takis Efstathiou - 2008

CM: The present print was engraved by the American revolutionary war patriot, colonial artist Amos Doolittle. It is a very fine uncolored print on fine-laid paper, with wide margins, titled "Judas Maccabaeus defeats the Samarian Army". This print was created for the American edition of ca. 1780 of "Flavius Josephus" translated by George Henry Maynard, published by J. Cooke, London. The illustration is sharp and detailed, as was typical of Doolittle's work, with elaborate 'faux' framing adorned with ivy, flowers, and urns.

When Mattathias died, his place was taken by his son Judas, known as Maccabaeus. All his brothers supported him and they fought for Israel. Judas Maccabaeus from 166 BC to 160 BC defeated Apollonius and then also Seron, commander of the Syrian troops. A new Syrian force of King Antiochus led by Ptolemy son of Dorymenes was then sent to Israel, led by Nicanor and Gorgias. Judas Maccabeus went with his army to Mizpah, opposite Jerusalem. He then gave battle to the Syrians near Emmaus. The gentiles were defeated. Then Lysias attacked Israel but he was defeated also. Judas Maccabaeus now purified the Temple at Mount Zion by blameless priests. They pulled down the altar of burnt offerings that had been profaned and deposited its stones in a suitable place on the Hill of Dwelling to wait for the appearance of a Prophet who should give a ruling about them. They took unhewn stones and built a new altar. They thus restored the holy place. Then they built new high walls and strong towers around Mount Zion. Judas Maccabaeus had to fight many battles, against the sons of Esau of Idumaea, against the gentiles of Gilead, against the people from Ptolemais, Tyre and Sidon. Judas and his brother routed their enemies but a large army of Jews led by Joseph son of Zechariah and also led by Azariah was defeated near Jamnia by Gorgias. Judas defeated however the Edomites and he destroyed Azotus. King Antiochus died in Elymais of Persia and his son Antiochus Eupator succeeded on him. This King Antiochus V and Lysias marched upon Israel. The king fought with his armies and blockaded Judaea and besieged Mount Zion, Jerusalem. But Lysias saw that the army was growing weaker every day. So he persuaded King Antiochus to make peace with the Jews and the Assyrians withdrew, not without having demolished the walls that encircled Jerusalem. Demetrius son of Seleucus came to Syria. He gave battle to Antiochus and captured Lysias and Antiochus. They were killed by the army and Demetrius ascended on the throne. Demetrius now sent Bacchides and Alcimus to fight the Israelites. These generals occupied Israel and did many wrongs. Judas had been abandoned by the Hassidaeans, but when he heard of what Alcimus was doing in Israel, he took vengeance on the ones that had deserted him and he prevented their free movement about the country. The king then sent Nicanor, one of his cruellest generals, with a large army to Israel, ordering to exterminate the people. Judas gave battle to Nicanor near Caphar-Salama and defeated him. Nicanor went to Jerusalem to ridicule and defile the priests there. After that, a new army came from Syria but also that new army of Nicanor was crushed by Judas. Judas cut off Nicanor's head and the right hand that the general had stretched out in insolence at the altar of Jerusalem. Judas then sent Eupolemus son of John of the family of Accos, and Jason son of Eleazar to Rome to make a treaty of friendship and alliance with these people. The Senate of Rome approved of the alliance. Demetrius sent Bacchides and Alcimus a second time into Judaea with a strong army. Judas gave battle to them at Beer-Zaith. The battle became desperate and very many casualties fell on both sides. Also Judas Maccabaeus fell however, and so died one of the greatest generals of Israel since Joshua.

[Megakles Rogakos 08/2008]