TX: inscribed with fountain pen at lower center of border <Tomb. Constantinople.>
CM: Abdülaziz (1830-1876) was Ottoman sultan from 1861 till 1876. He was greatly involved in trying to reform the Ottoman state, but after the death of his chief ministers in 1871, this line was abandoned. His early line was marked by much openness towards Europe and admiration of the advances made in this part of the world. He pursued good relations with western powers, and became the first Ottoman sultan to visit Western Europe. During his reign, conditions became worse for the population. The cost of the military was very high, the needs of the population were not met and foreign debts grew to problematic dimensions. At the same time the sultan was most lavish in his personal expenses, and was in some cases more concerned about making personal profits from falling prices than fighting the negative consequences this had for the rest of the society. His lack of a proper economic politics was perhaps the factor that more than anything else led to his downfall. Abdülaziz was deposed by his ministers to be succeeded by Murad V, who would rule for 93 days before the accession to the throne of II. Abdülaziz died in Constantinople, allegedly by committing suicide.